1. First principles thinking
Your math must compute if you're building a rocket, bridge, or airplane.
One wrong computation and people die.
1 + 1 must always be 2 because everything is built on top.
This applies to your thinking. One carelessly defined word or idea, and everything above is at risk. People are more susceptible to this than they realize since so few have analyzed their biases, fears, and assumptions.
2. Definitions are paramount
Socrates obsessed over the definitions of words.
Most struggle to define the words they use. So assumptions creep into the foundation of their thinking.
If your foundation is shaky, everything built on top is fragile.
3. Think independently, not socially
Remove other people from your thinking.
You must find built-in biases based on what you want to believe.
Most fail to overcome the dissonance of Truth being inconvenient to the status quo, so they never see it.
Every idea is an assumption. Even first principles could change if there is a breakthrough discovery (but seldom do).
The best ideas and right actions don't always lead to the desired outcome.
So pivot and go again.
Be fluid, flexible, and always moving.