The 5 Things That Every Human Needs to Live

These 5 things are just some of what every human needs to be able to live a happy, , healthy and productive life, without or . Schools can use these to teach math, science, chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, farming and social intelligence. The needs of people is .

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is a means of by having the minimal amount of needed to or in effect. The action of or at a minimum level. is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for all citizens, sometimes referred to as public aid.

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is the activity of someone or something from or . The condition of being protected. Kindly endorsement and guidance. Defense against financial failure. A covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury.

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is having a of circumstances and having some type of that makes it for a person to have a to and to do something of or to be someone of value. An opportunity is a to realize your and to the possibilities. - - .

is from and , and having immunity from exercise of , as well as the for an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions.

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is the act of in the activities of a group. The condition of sharing in common with others.

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is the human act of and making something or starting something for the first time and introducing something new.

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is the capacity for , inference or discrimination. Understanding based on comprehension and discernment and .

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is a positive feeling of liking.

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is time available for ease and and the freedom to choose a pastime or enjoyable activity.

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is the by which a thing or person is recognized or known. The distinct of an individual regarded as a persisting entity.

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- Personal , Financial security, , Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts, Friendship, Intimacy, , love, family, physiological, esteem, , and .

is something that is , things like , water, and shelter. There are also many other needs that people require in order to , things like , freedom, , and love. When peoples needs are not available, then people will suffer, and when important needs are unavailable, then people could die.

was proposed by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his State of the Union Address on Tuesday, January 11, 1944. In his address, Roosevelt suggested that the nation had come to recognize and should now implement, a second "bill of rights". Roosevelt argued that the "political rights" guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights had "proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness". His remedy was to declare an "" to guarantee these specific rights: , , and with . . . . . . .

is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of . It observes life satisfaction, including everything from , family, , employment, , religious beliefs, and the environment. QOL has a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, , politics and employment. It is important not to mix up the concept of QOL with a more recent growing area of health related QOL (HRQOL). An assessment of HRQOL is effectively an evaluation of QOL and its relationship with health. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living, which is based primarily on income. Standard indicators of the quality of life include not only wealth and employment but also the built environment, physical and mental health, , recreation and leisure time, and social belonging. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), quality of life is defined as “the individual’s perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals.” In comparison to WHO's definitions, the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale defines quality of life as “life quality (in this case, physical pain) at a precise moment in time.”

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or is happiness or and human flourishing, and blessedness.

is a general term for the condition of an or , for example their social, economic, psychological, spiritual or medical state; a high level of well-being means in some sense the or condition is positive, while low well-being is associated with negative happenings. In philosophy, the term 'well-being' (and 'welfare', 'utility', etc.) refers to the manner in which an individual's life manifests desires, objectives, and needs—among myriad more diverse variables—and how these affect the individual's perspective. .

is a sense of , often characterized as a . Persons who are lacking in comfort are uncomfortable, or experiencing discomfort. A degree of psychological comfort can be achieved by recreating experiences that are associated with pleasant memories, such as engaging in familiar activities, maintaining the presence of familiar objects, and consumption of healthy foods. Comfort is a particular concern in , as providing comfort to the sick and injured is one goal of healthcare, and can facilitate recovery. Persons who are surrounded with things that provide psychological comfort may be described as "in their comfort zone". Because of the personal nature of positive associations, psychological comfort is highly subjective.

are things that make you comfortable and at ease and give you a sense of pleasantness resulting from agreeable conditions. - .

refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country. The standard of living includes factors such as income, quality and availability of employment, class disparity, , quality and , hours of work required to purchase necessities, gross domestic product, inflation rate, amount of leisure time every year, affordable (or free) access to quality healthcare, quality and availability of education, , incidence of disease, cost of goods and services, , national economic growth, economic and political stability, political and religious freedom, environmental quality, climate and . The standard of living is closely related to . Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth inequality, and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods (such as number of refrigerators per 1000 people), or measurement of health such as life expectancy. It is the ease by which people living in a time or place are able to satisfy their needs and/or wants. The main idea of a 'standard' may be contrasted with the quality of life, which takes into account not only the material standard of living, but also other more intangible aspects that make up human life, such as leisure, safety, cultural resources, social life, physical health, environmental quality issues etc. The means of measuring well-being must be employed to make such judgments, and these are very often political, thus controversial. Even between two nations or societies that have similar material standards of living, quality of life factors may in fact make one of these places more attractive to a given individual or group.

refers to the means of securing the -food, water, shelter and clothing- of ". Livelihood is defined as , involving securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing and the capacity to acquire above necessities working either individually or as a group by using endowments (both human and material) for meeting the requirements of the self and his/her household on a sustainable basis with dignity. The activities are usually carried out repeatedly. For instance, a fisherman's livelihood depends on the availability and accessibility of fish.

is the way people show their and feelings and how they feel about their directions and options for the future. It is a measure of well-being and may be assessed in terms of mood, satisfaction with relations with others and with achieved , self-concepts, and to cope with . It is having a of one's life as a whole rather than an assessment of current feelings. Life satisfaction has been measured in relation to economic standing, , experiences, and residence, as well as many other topics. Life satisfaction is a key part of , which is a self-reported measure of well-being, typically obtained by questionnaire. Differences in experience can greatly shape the way that we observe and engage with the world around us. It can influence the way we speak to people, the way we act in public, and our general outlook. These experiences which shape the way we think about our surroundings affect our life-satisfaction. Someone who has the tendency to see the world in a more negative light may have a completely different level of satisfaction than someone who is constantly admiring the beauty of their surroundings. People who engage with more stress on average tend to have higher levels of stress can contribute to higher levels of self-report life satisfaction, as long as those who understand how to deal with their stress in a positive way. It is proposed that overall life satisfaction comes from within an individual based on the individual's personal values and what he or she holds important. For some it is family, for others it is love, and for others, it is money or other material items; either way, it varies from one person to another.

is the quantitative and theoretical study of happiness, positive and negative affect, well-being, quality of life, life satisfaction and related concepts, typically combining economics with other fields such as psychology, health and sociology. It typically treats such happiness-related measures, rather than wealth, income or profit, as something to be maximized. The field has grown substantially since the late 20th century, for example by the development of methods, surveys and indices to measure happiness and related concepts. Its findings have been described as a challenge to the economics profession.

is an index of human well-being and environmental impact that was introduced by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in July 2006. The index is weighted to give progressively higher scores to nations with lower ecological footprints. The index is designed to challenge well-established indices of countries’ development, such as the gross domestic product (GDP) and the Human Development Index (HDI), which are seen as not taking sustainability into account. In particular, GDP is seen as inappropriate, as the usual ultimate aim of most people is not to be rich, but to be happy and healthy. Furthermore, it is believed that the notion of sustainable development requires a measure of the environmental costs of pursuing those goals. Out of the 178 countries surveyed in 2006, the best scoring countries were Vanuatu, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, and Panama. In 2009, Costa Rica was the best scoring country among the 143 analyzed, followed by the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Guatemala and Vietnam. Tanzania, Botswana and Zimbabwe were featured at the bottom of the list. For the 2012 ranking, 151 countries were compared, and the best scoring country for the second time in a row was Costa Rica, followed by Vietnam, Colombia, Belize and El Salvador. The lowest ranking countries in 2012 were Botswana, Chad and Qatar. In 2016, out of 140 countries, Costa Rica topped the index for the third time in a row. It was followed by Mexico, Colombia, Vanuatu and Vietnam. At the bottom were Chad, Luxembourg and Togo. - ?

is the of something desired, promised, or . A feeling of satisfaction at having achieved your desires. The meeting of a requirement or condition. .

is the satisfaction or as a result of fully or character. is the realizing of one's deepest desires and capacities. actualization.

or is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society. It is relative to one's current social location within a given society.

measures the degree of economic in the world's nations and their basic institutions that protects the of individuals to result in greater prosperity for the larger society. .

are measures that encompass personal, civil, and economic freedom. The index presents a broad measure of human freedom, understood as the absence of coercive constraint. It uses 79 distinct indicators of personal and economic freedom. The index covers the following areas: Rule of Law, Security and Safety, Movement, Religion, Association, Assembly, Civil Society, Expression, Relationships, Size of Government, Legal System and Property Rights, Access to Sound Money, Freedom to Trade Internationally, and Regulation of Credit, Labor, and Business. .

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measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens. Fifty-four indicators in the areas of basic human needs, foundations of well-being, and opportunity to progress show the relative performance of nations. The index is published by the nonprofit Social Progress Imperative, and is based on the writings of Amartya Sen, Douglass North, and Joseph Stiglitz. The SPI measures the well-being of a society by observing social and environmental outcomes directly rather than the economic factors. The social and environmental factors include wellness (including health, shelter and sanitation), equality, inclusion, sustainability and personal freedom and safety. .

is an international index ranking one hundred and sixty countries on their performance on five categories of indicators: religious freedom (taking into account both the freedom to practice any religion or none, and the situation of religious control on the state); bioethical freedom (including the legal status of abortion, euthanasia and other practices pertaining to bioethics, like surrogacy or stem cell research); drugs freedom (including the legal status of cannabis and the country's general policy on hard drugs); sexual freedom (including the legal status of pornography and sex services among consenting adults, and the country's age of sexual consent), and family and gender freedom (including women's freedom of movement, the legal status of cohabitation of unmarried couples, same sex marriage and the situation of transgender people). .

measures the in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. .

is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Achieve universal primary education. Promote gender equality and empower women. Reduce child mortality. Improve maternal health. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. Ensure environmental sustainability. Develop a global partnership for development.

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in humanity is a concept within a field of international development. It involves studies of the human condition with its core being the capability approach. The inequality adjusted Human Development Index is used as a way of measuring actual progress in by the . It is an alternative approach to a single focus on economic growth, and focused more on social justice, as a way of understanding progress. Human Development is the process of enlarging people's , said choices allowing them to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated, to enjoy a decent standard of living, as well as political freedom, other guaranteed and various ingredients of self-respect.

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Where , and are inseparable.

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is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately.

of the U.S. President's Commission was organized in February 1960 as a non-official body whose purpose was to develop a for the next decade and longer.

is a think tank at Columbia University, founded in 1950 by General Dwight Eisenhower. It has become his most enduring achievement and legacy as president of Columbia. For over 60 years, it has fostered nonpartisan public-policy discussions by convening, research, and publication. Over 100 "American Assemblies" have been held on topics ranging from prison reform to healthcare to nuclear disarmament. In recent years, Assembly projects have made a wide range of contributions to economic, urban, and cultural policy, including projects on workforce development, financial regulation, and the role of the arts in American universities.

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is an acronym that stands for Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed. ALICE represents the households with income above the Federal Poverty Level but below the basic cost of living. - .

. A study led by the has found that no country currently meets its citizens’ basic needs at a globally sustainable level of resource use.

is given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries. Closely-related concepts include: foreign aid, international aid, overseas aid, developmental aid, development assistance, official development assistance (ODA), development cooperation and technical assistance. It is distinguished from humanitarian aid by aiming at a sustained improvement in the conditions in a developing country, rather than short-term relief. Development aid is thus widely seen as a major way to meet Sustainable Development Goal 1 (end poverty in all its forms everywhere) for the developing nations. Aid may be bilateral: given from one country directly to another; or it may be multilateral: given by the donor country to an international organisation such as the World Bank or the United Nations Agencies (UNDP, UNICEF, UNAIDS, etc.) which then distributes it among the developing countries. The proportion is currently about 70% bilateral 30% multilateral. About 80% of the aid measured by the OECD comes from government sources as official development assistance (ODA). The remaining 20% or so comes from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations or NGOs (e.g., Oxfam). Most development aid comes from the Western industrialised countries but some poorer countries also contribute aid. Development aid is not usually understood as including remittances received from migrants working or living in diaspora--even though these form a significant amount of international transfer--as the recipients of remittances are usually individuals and families rather than formal projects and programmes. Some governments also include military assistance in the notion of "foreign aid", although the international community does not usually regard military aid as development aid.

or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of "development" on an international scale. It is the basis for international classifications such as developed country, developing country and least developed country, and for a field of practice and research that in various ways engages with international development processes. There are, however, many schools of thought and conventions regarding which are the exact features constituting the "development" of a country. Historically, development has often been largely synonymous with economic development. More recently, writers and practitioners have begun to discuss development in the more holistic and multi-disciplinary sense of human development. Other related concepts are, for instance, competitiveness, quality of life or subjective well-being. "International development" is different from the simple concept of "development". Whereas the latter, at its most basic, denotes simply the idea of change through time, international development has come to refer to a distinct field of practice, industry, and research; the subject of university courses and professional categorisations. It remains closely related to the set of institutions—especially the Bretton Woods Institutions—that arose after the Second World War with a focus on economic growth, alleviating poverty, and improving living conditions in previously colonised countries. The international community has codified development aims in, for instance, the Millennium Development Goals (2000 to 2015) and the Sustainable Development Goals (2015 to 2030).

is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance. USAID's decentralized network of resident field missions is drawn on to manage U.S. Government (USG) programs in low-income countries for a range of purposes. Disaster relief, Poverty relief, Technical cooperation on global issues, including the environment, U.S. bilateral interests, Socioeconomic development.

is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low or HDI relative to other countries. However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. The term low and middle-income country (LMIC) is often used interchangeably but refers only to the economy of the countries. The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita: high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income countries. Least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states are all sub-groupings of developing countries. Countries on the other end of the spectrum are usually referred to as high-income countries or developed countries. Developing countries tend to have some characteristics in common often due to their histories or geographies. For example, with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; energy poverty; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor air pollution, water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); a high number of road traffic accidents; and generally poor infrastructure. Often, there is also widespread poverty, low education levels, inadequate access to family planning services, many informal settlements, corruption at all government levels, and a lack of so-called good governance. Global warming (climate change) is expected to impact developing countries more than wealthier countries, as most of them have a high "climate vulnerability". Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support developing countries' economic, environmental, social, and political development. The Sustainable Development Goals by the United Nations were set up to overcome many of these problems.

is a fundamental or . : Education, Water, Health, Food, Opportunity. : Education, Clean Water & Sanitation, Food & Nutrition, Healthcare and Income Training & Empowerment.

refers to making to available to everyone. means in the availability of . means human labor productivity or productivity in terms of . means to have the to make .

was a series of programs and projects instituted during the Great Depression by President Franklin D. Roosevelt that aimed to restore prosperity to Americans. When Roosevelt took office in , he acted swiftly to stabilize the economy and provide jobs and relief to those who were suffering. The programs focused on what historians refer to as the "3 Rs": for the unemployed and poor, of the economy back to normal levels and of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.

mandated that the Civilian Conservation Corps () recruit unemployed young men from urban areas to perform conservation work throughout the nation's forests, parks, and fields. (ECP) helps farmers and ranchers to repair damage to farmlands caused by natural disasters and to help put in place methods for water conservation during severe drought. The ECP does this by giving ranchers and farmers funding and assistance to repair the damaged farmland or to install methods for water conservation.

was a voluntary public work relief program that operated from in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. Originally for young men ages 18–25, it was eventually expanded to ages 17–28. Robert Fechner was the first director of this agency, succeeded by James McEntee following Fechner's death. The CCC was a major part of New Deal that provided manual labor jobs related to the and in rural lands owned by federal, state, and local governments. The CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men and to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000. Through the course of its nine years in operation, 3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them with shelter, clothing, and food, together with a wage of $30 (equivalent to $590 in 2019) per month ($25 of which had to be sent home to their families). The American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs. Sources written at the time claimed an individual's enrollment in the CCC led to improved physical condition, heightened morale, and increased employability. The CCC also led to a greater public awareness and and the , and the continued need for a , comprehensive national program for the and of natural resources. The CCC operated separate programs for veterans and Native Americans. Approximately 15,000 Native Americans participated in the program, helping them weather the Great Depression. By 1942, with World War II and the draft in operation, the need for work relief declined, and Congress voted to close the program. (vimeo) - .

began with the . The stock market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and for economic growth as well as for personal advancement. Altogether, there was a general loss of confidence in the economic future.

is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939. Set during the Great Depression, the novel focuses on the Joads, a poor family of tenant farmers driven from their Oklahoma home by drought, economic hardship, agricultural industry changes, and bank foreclosures forcing tenant farmers out of work. Due to their nearly hopeless situation, and in part because they are trapped in the Dust Bowl, the Joads set out for California along with thousands of other "Okies" seeking jobs, land, dignity, and a future.

were important proposals to aid education, , the Fair Employment Practices Commission, and repeal of the Taft–Hartley Act. They were all debated at length, then voted down. , from to 1953.

is a set of proposed economic stimulus programs on in the United States that aims to address climate change and economic inequality. "Guaranteeing a job with a family-sustaining wage, adequate family and medical leave, paid vacations, and retirement security to all people of the United States." "Providing all people of the United States with — (i) high-quality health care; (ii) affordable, safe, and adequate housing; (iii) economic security; and (iv) access to clean water, clean air, healthy and affordable food, and nature." "Providing resources, training, and high-quality education, including higher education, to all people of the United States." "Meeting 100 percent of the power demand in the United States through clean, renewable, and zero-emission energy sources." "Repairing and upgrading the infrastructure in the United States. Eliminating pollution and greenhouse gas emissions as much as technologically feasible." "Building or upgrading to energy-efficient, distributed, and ‘smart’ power grids, and working to ensure affordable access to electricity." "Upgrading all existing buildings in the United States and building new buildings to achieve maximal energy efficiency, water efficiency, safety, affordability, comfort, and durability, including through electrification." "Overhauling transportation systems in the United States to eliminate pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector as much as is technologically feasible, including through investment in — (i) zero-emission vehicle infrastructure and manufacturing; (ii) clean, affordable, and accessible public transportation; and (iii) high-speed rail." "Spurring massive growth in clean manufacturing in the United States and removing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from manufacturing and industry as much as is technologically feasible." "Working collaboratively with farmers and ranchers in the United States to eliminate pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector as much as is technologically feasible." Green New Deal.

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is determined by the amount of the number of people it will take to perform any one of the Big 5 Responsibilities. The time needed to complete the tasks in each category and subcategory of the Big 5. The resources needed to complete the task. , alternatives and choices. Quantity needed will vary depending on required . Required amounts of Food and Water that are Necessary may vary depending on the location and region of the planet because of usable land and rainfall. .

on the Planet (Repair, Restore, Maintain, Manage).

(video) - Sustainable, Reusable and Recyclable - Minerals, Land, Wood, Water, Air, Technology.

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. Things that we can Measure and Predict. Things that can be Confirmed and Repeated in Tests using People, Time and Resources. The first thing we teach is why the Big 5 is extremely important to every Human. .

– Economic security requires an for individuals, usually from productive and remunerative work or, as a last resort, from a publicly financed safety net. In this sense, only about a quarter of the world's people are presently economically secure. While the economic security problem may be more serious in developing countries, concern also arises in developed countries as well. Unemployment problems constitute an important factor underlying political tensions and ethnic violence.

– Food security requires that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food. According to the United Nations, the overall availability of food is not a problem, rather the problem often is the poor distribution of food and a lack of purchasing power. In the past, food security problems have been dealt with at both national and global levels. However, their impacts are limited. According to UN, the key is to tackle the problems relating to access to assets, work and assured income (related to economic security).

– Health Security aims to guarantee a minimum protection from diseases and unhealthy lifestyles. In developing countries, the major causes of death traditionally were infectious and parasitic diseases, whereas in industrialized countries, the major killers were diseases of the circulatory system. Today, lifestyle-related chronic diseases are leading killers worldwide, with 80 percent of deaths from chronic diseases occurring in low- and middle-income countries.[8] According to the United Nations, in both developing and industrial countries, threats to health security are usually greater for poor people in rural areas, particularly children. This is due to malnutrition and insufficient access to health services, clean water and other basic necessities.

– Environmental security aims to protect people from the short- and long-term ravages of nature, man-made threats in nature, and deterioration of the natural environment. In developing countries, lack of access to clean water resources is one of the greatest environmental threats. In industrial countries, one of the major threats is air pollution. Global warming, caused by the emission of greenhouse gases, is another environmental security issue. - (youtube).

– Personal security aims to protect people from physical violence, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals and sub-state actors, from domestic abuse, or from predatory adults. For many people, the greatest source of anxiety is crime, particularly violent crime. understanding global vulnerabilities.

– Community security aims to protect people from the loss of traditional relationships and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence. Traditional communities, particularly minority ethnic groups are often threatened. About half of the world's states have experienced some inter-ethnic strife. The United Nations declared 1993 the Year of Indigenous People to highlight the continuing vulnerability of the 300 million aboriginal people in 70 countries as they face a widening spiral of violence.

– Political security is concerned with whether people live in a society that honors their basic human rights. According to a survey conducted by Amnesty International, political repression, systematic torture, ill treatment or disappearance was still practiced in 110 countries. Human rights violations are most frequent during periods of political unrest. Along with repressing individuals and groups, governments may try to exercise control over ideas and information.

The major problem with our Government is that it's riddled with and . A system that depends on money and not people, is pure ignorance. And and abuse is the end result. The only true way to defend people against a flawed society is to teach essential knowledge and information to every human being on this planet. When we fix our education system, then we will be on are way to a better world for all. One of the first things that every society needs to do is to provide the big 5, . All Five are equally important and all five are connected. is a or a set into two parts or subsets. In other words, this couple of parts must be jointly exhaustive: everything must belong to one part or the other, and mutually exclusive: nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts. , create suffering and cause death. Being counter productive and making people vulnerable is not logical. is the damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic in a society. The lack or denial of something considered to be a necessity.

tries to measure that are recognized throughout all major cultures. Motivational types of . The Theory of recognize ten universal values, which can be organized in four higher-order groups. Each of the ten universal values has a central goal that is the underlying motivator. Openness to change. —choosing, creating, exploring. Stimulation Excitement, novelty and challenge in life. Self-enhancement. Hedonism Pleasure or sensuous gratification for oneself. Achievement Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards. Power Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources. Conservation. Security Safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. Conformity. , inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms. Tradition Respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that one's culture or religion provides. Self-transcendence. Benevolence Preserving and enhancing the welfare of those with whom one is in frequent personal contact (the ‘in-group’). Universalism Understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature. Spirituality was considered as an additional eleventh value, however, it was found that it did not exist in all . Although the theory distinguishes ten values, the borders between the motivators are artificial and one value flows into the next, which can be seen by the following shared motivational emphases: —social superiority and esteem; Achievement and Hedonism—self-centred satisfaction; Hedonism and Stimulation—a desire for affectively pleasant arousal; Stimulation and Self-direction—intrinsic interest in novelty and mastery; Self-direction and Universalism—reliance upon one's own judgement and comfort with the diversity of existence; Universalism and Benevolence—enhancement of others and transcendence of selfish interests; Benevolence and Tradition—devotion to one's in-group; Benevolence and Conformity—normative behaviour that promotes close relationships; Conformity and Tradition—subordination of self in favour of socially imposed expectations; Tradition and Security—preserving existing social arrangements that give certainty to life; Conformity and Security—protection of order and harmony in relations; Security and Power—avoiding or overcoming threats by controlling relationships and resources. Furthermore, people are still able to follow opposing values through acting differently in different settings or at different times. The structure of Schwartz's 10-value type model (see graph above) has been supported across over 80 countries, gender, various methods such as importance ratings of values (using the surveys listed below), direct similarity judgment tasks, pile sorting, and spatial arrangement, and even for how the values of other people, such as family members, are perceived.

is a the has the or worth . Spheres of human value encompass morality, aesthetic preference, human traits, human endeavour, and social order. Values can be split into two categories, there are individual values, which pertains to something that we think has worth and then there are social values. Social values are our desires modified according to ethical principles or according to the group, we associate with: friends, family, or co-workers. Norms tell us what people ought to do in a given situation. Unlike values, norms are enforced externally – or outside of oneself. A society as a whole determines norms, and they can be passed down from generation to generation.

who is a social psychologist, cross-cultural researcher, did some research and his results from a series of studies included surveys of more than 25,000 people in 44 countries with a wide range of different cultural types suggest that there are fifty-six specific universal values and ten types of universal . Schwartz's ten types of universal value are: power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security. Below are each of the value types, with the specific related values alongside: Power: authority; leadership; dominance, social power, wealth. Achievement: success; capability; ambition; influence; intelligence; self-respect. Hedonism: pleasure; enjoying life. Stimulation: daring activities; varied life; exciting life. Self-direction: creativity; freedom; independence; curiosity; choosing your own goals. Universalism: broadmindedness; wisdom; social justice; equality; a world at peace; a world of beauty; unity with nature; protecting the environment; inner harmony. Benevolence: helpfulness; honesty; forgiveness; loyalty; responsibility; friendship. Tradition: accepting one's portion in life; humility; devoutness; respect for tradition; moderation. Conformity: self-discipline; obedience. Security: cleanliness; family security; national security; stability of social order; reciprocation of favours; health; sense of belonging. Schwartz also tested an eleventh possible universal value, 'spirituality', or 'the goal of finding meaning in life', but found that it does not seem to be recognized in all cultures.

is a global research project that explores people's and beliefs, how they change over time, and what social and political impact they have. Since 1981 a worldwide network of social scientists have conducted representative national surveys as part of WVS in almost 100 countries. The WVS measures, monitors and analyzes: support for democracy, tolerance of foreigners and ethnic minorities, support for gender equality, the role of religion and changing levels of religiosity, the impact of globalization, attitudes toward the environment, work, family, politics, national identity, culture, diversity, insecurity, and subjective well-being. The findings provide information for policy makers seeking to build civil society and democratic institutions in developing countries. The work is also frequently used by governments around the world, scholars, students, journalists and international organizations and institutions such as the World Bank and the United Nations (UNDP and UN-Habitat). Data from the World Values Survey have (for example) been used to better understand the motivations behind events such as the Arab Spring, the 2005 French civil unrest, the Rwandan genocide in 1994 and the Yugoslav wars and political upheaval in the 1990s. Romano Prodi, former Prime Minister of Italy and the tenth President of the European Commission, said about WVS work: The growing globalization of the world makes it increasingly important to understand ... diversity. People with varying beliefs and values can live together and work together productively, but for this to happen it is crucial to understand and appreciate their distinctive worldviews. Analysis of WVS data made by political scientists Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel asserts that there are two major dimensions of cross cultural variation in the world: Traditional values versus Secular-rational values and Survival values versus Self-expression values. The global cultural map shows how scores of societies are located on these two dimensions. Moving upward on this map reflects the shift from Traditional values to Secular-rational and moving rightward reflects the shift from Survival values to Self–expression values.

concerns the nature of a socially just in a society. A society in which incidental inequalities in outcome do not arise would be considered a society guided by the principles of distributive justice. The concept includes the available quantities of goods, the process by which goods are to be distributed, and the resulting allocation of the goods to the members of the society. - .

Huey Long's “” Share Our Wealth Radio Speech by Senator Huey P. Long, of Louisiana, February 23, 1934. Is that a right of life when the young children of this country are being reared into a sphere which is more owned by 12 men than it is by 120,000,000 people?” Huey Long unveiled his “Share Our Wealth” plan, a program designed to provide a decent standard of living to all Americans by spreading the nation’s wealth among the people. Long proposed capping personal fortunes at $50 million each (roughly $600 million in today's dollars) through a restructured, progressive federal tax code and sharing the resulting revenue with the public through government benefits and public works. In subsequent speeches and writings, he revised his graduated tax levy on wealth over $1 million to cap fortunes at $5 - $8 million (or $60 - $96 million today). : — I have only 30 minutes in which to speak to you this evening, and I, therefore, will not be able to discuss in detail so much as I can write when I have all of the time and space that is allowed me for the subjects, but I will undertake to sketch them very briefly without manuscript or preparation, so that you can understand them so well as I can tell them to you tonight. I contend, my friends, that we have no difficult problem to solve in America, and that is the view of nearly everyone with whom I have discussed the matter here in Washington and elsewhere throughout the United States—that we have no very difficult problem to solve. It is not the difficulty of the problem which we have; it is the fact that the rich people of this country—and by rich people I mean the super-rich—will not allow us to solve the problems, or rather the one little problem that is afflicting this country, because in order to cure all of our woes it is necessary to scale down the big fortunes, that we may scatter the wealth to be shared by all of the people. We have a marvelous love for this Government of ours; in fact, it is almost a religion, and it is well that it should be, because we have a splendid form of government and we have a splendid set of laws. We have everything here that we need, except that we have neglected the fundamentals upon which the American Government was principally predicated. How many of you remember the first thing that the Declaration of Independence said? It said: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that there are certain inalienable rights for the people, and among them are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness;" and it said further, "We hold the view that all men are created equal." Now, what did they mean by that? Did they mean, my friends, to say that all men are created equal and that that meant that any one man was born to inherit $10,000,000,000 and that another child was to be born to inherit nothing? Did that mean, my friends, that someone would come into this world without having had an opportunity, of course, to have hit one lick of work, should be born with more than it and all of its children and children's children could ever dispose of, but that another one would have to be born into a life of starvation? That was not the meaning of the Declaration of Independence when it said that all men are created equal or "That we hold that all men are created equal." Nor was it the meaning of the Declaration of Independence when it said that they held that there were certain rights that were inalienable—the right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Is that right of life, my friends, when the young children of this country are being reared into a sphere which is more owned by 12 men than it by 120,000,000 people? Is that, my friends, giving them a fair shake of the dice or anything like the inalienable right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, or anything resembling the fact that all people are created equal; when we have today in America thousands and hundreds of thousands and millions of children on the verge of starvation in a land that is overflowing with too much to eat and too much to wear? I do not think you will contend that, and I do not think for a moment that they will contend it. Now let us see if we cannot return this Government to the Declaration of Independence and see if we are going to do anything regarding it. Why should we hesitate or why should we quibble or why should we quarrel with one another to find out what the difficulty is, when we know that the Lord told us what the difficulty is, and Moses wrote it out so a blind man could see it, then Jesus told us all about it, and it was later written in the Book of James, where everyone could read it? I refer to the Scriptures, now, my friends, and give you what it says not for the purpose of convincing you of the wisdom of myself, not for the purpose, ladies and gentlemen, of convincing you of the fact that I am quoting the Scriptures means that I am to be more believed than someone else; but I quote you the Scripture, or rather refer you to the Scripture, because whatever you see there you may rely upon will never be disproved so long as you or your children or anyone may live; and you may further depend upon the fact that not one historical fact that the Bible has ever contained has ever yet been disproved by any scientific discovery or by reason of anything that has been disclosed to man through his own individual mind or through the wisdom of the Lord which the Lord has allowed him to have. But the Scripture says, ladies and gentlemen, that no country can survive, or for a country to survive it is necessary that we keep the wealth scattered among the people, that nothing should keep the wealth scattered among the people, that nothing should be held permanently by any one person, and that 50 years seems to be the year of jubilee in which all property would be scattered about and returned to the sources from which it originally came, and every seventh year debt should be remitted. Those two things the Almighty said to be necessary—I should say He knew to be necessary, or else He would not have so prescribed that the property would be kept among the general run of the people, and that everyone would continue to share in it; so that no one man would get half of it and hand it down to a son, who takes half of what was left, and that son hand it down to another one, who would take half of what was left, until, like a snowball going downhill, all of the snow was off of the ground except what the snowball had. I believe that was the judgment and the view and the law of the Lord, that we would have to distribute wealth ever so often, in order that there could not be people starving to death in a land of plenty, as there is in America today. We have in America today more wealth, more goods, more food, more clothing, more houses than we have ever had. We have everything in abundance here. We have the farm problem, my friends, because we have too much cotton, because we have too much wheat, and have too much corn, and too much potatoes. We have a home loan problem, because we have too many houses, and yet nobody can buy them and live in them. We have trouble, my friends, in the country, because we have too much money owing, the greatest indebtedness that has ever been given to civilization, where it has been shown that we are incapable of distributing the actual things that are here, because the people have not money enough to supply themselves with them, and because the greed of a few men is such that they think it is necessary that they own everything, and their pleasure consists in the starvation of the masses, and in their possessing things they cannot use, and their children cannot use, but who bask in the splendor of sunlight and wealth, casting darkness and despair and impressing it on everyone else. "So, therefore," said the Lord in effect, "if you see these things that now have occurred and exist in this and other countries, there must be a constant scattering of wealth in any country if this country is to survive." "Then," said the Lord, in effect, "every seventh year there shall be a remission of debts; there will be no debts after 7 years." That was the law. Now, let us take America today. We have in America today, ladies and gentlemen, $272,000,000,000 of debt. Two hundred and seventy-two thousand millions of dollars of debts are owed by the various people of this country today. Why, my friends, that cannot be paid. It is not possible for that kind of debt to be paid. The entire currency of the United States is only $6,000,000,000. That is all of the money that we have got in America today. All the actual money you have got in all of your banks, all that you have got in the Government Treasury, is $6,000,000,000; and if you took all that money and paid it out today you would still owe $266,000,000,000; and if you took all that money and paid again you would still owe $260,000,000,000; and if you took it, my friends, 20 times and paid it you would still owe $150,000,000,000. You would have to have 45 times the entire money supply of the United States today to pay the debts of the people of America and then they would just have to start out from scratch, without a dime to go on with. So, my friends, it is impossible to pay all of these debts, and you might as well find out that it cannot be done. The United States Supreme Court has definitely found out that it could not be done, because, in a Minnesota case, it held that when a State has postponed the evil day of collecting a debt it was a valid and constitutional exercise of legislative power. Now, ladies and gentlemen, if I may proceed to give you some other words that I think you can understand—I am not going to belabor you by quoting tonight—I am going to tell you what the wise men of all ages and all times, down even to the present day, have all said: That you must keep the wealth of the country scattered, and you must limit the amount that any one man can own. You cannot let any man own §300,000,000,000 or $400,000,000,000. If you do, one man can own all of the wealth that the United States has in it. Now, my friends, if you were off on an island where there were 100 lunches, you could not let one man eat up the hundred lunches, or take the hundred lunches and not let anybody else eat any of them. If you did, there would not be anything else for the balance of the people to consume. So, we have in America today, my friends, a condition by which about 10 men dominate the means of activity in at least 85 percent of the activities that you own. They either own directly everything or they have got some kind of mortgage on it, with a very small percentage to be excepted. They own the banks, they own the steel mills, they own the railroads, they own the bonds, they own the mortgages, they own the stores, and they have chained the country from one end to the other until there is not any kind of business that a small, independent man could go into today and make a living, and there is not any kind of business that an independent man can go into and make any money to buy an automobile with; and they have finally and gradually and steadily eliminated everybody from the fields in which there is a living to be made, and still they have got little enough sense to think they ought to be able to get more business out of it anyway. If you reduce a man to the point where he is starving to death and bleeding and dying, how do you expect that man to get hold of any money to spend with you? It is not possible. Then, ladies and gentlemen, how do you expect people to live, when the wherewith cannot be had by the people? In the beginning I quoted from the Scriptures. I hope you will understand that I am not quoting Scripture to you to convince you of my goodness personally, because that is a thing between me and my Maker; that is something as to how I stand with my Maker and as to how you stand with your Maker. That is not concerned with this issue, except and unless there are those of you who would be so good as to pray for the souls of some of UK. Rut the Lord gave His law, and in the Book of James they said so, that the rich should weep and howl for the miseries that had come upon them; and, therefore, it was written that when the rich hold goods they could not use and could not consume, you will inflict punishment on them, and nothing but days of woe ahead of them. Then we have heard of the great Greek philosopher, Socrates, and the greater Greek philosopher, Plato, and we have read the dialogue between Plato and Socrates, in which one said that great riches brought on great poverty, and would be destructive of a country. Read what they said. Read what Plato said; that you must not let any one man be too poor, and you must not let any one man be too rich; that the same mill that grinds out the extra rich is the mill that will grind out the extra poor, because, in order that the extra rich can become so affluent, they must necessarily take more of what ordinarily would belong to the average man. It is a very simple process of mathematics that you do not have to study, and that no one is going to discuss with you. So that was the view of Socrates and Plato. That was the view of the English statesmen. That was the view of American statesmen. That was the view of American statesmen like Daniel Webster, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, William Jennings Bryan, and Theodore Roosevelt, and even as late as Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Both of these men, Mr. Hoover and Mr. Roosevelt, came out and said there had to be a decentralization of wealth, but neither one of them did anything about it. But, nevertheless, they recognized the principle. The fact that neither one of them ever did anything about it is their own problem that I am not undertaking to criticize; but had Mr. Hoover carried out what he says ought to be done, he would be retiring from the President's office, very probably, 8 years from now, instead of 1 year ago; and had Mr. Roosevelt proceeded along the lines that he stated were necessary for the decentralization of wealth, he would have gone, my friends, a long way already, and within a few months he would have probably reached a solution of all of the problems that afflict this country today. But I wish to warn you now that nothing that has been done up to this date has taken one dime away from these big fortune-holders; they own just as much as they did, and probably a little bit more; they hold just as many of the debts of the common people as they ever held, and probably a little bit more; and unless we, my friends, are going to give the people of this country a fair shake of the dice, by which they will all get something out of the funds of this land, there is not a chance on the topside of this God's eternal earth by which we can rescue this country and rescue the people of this country. It is necessary to save the government of the country, but is much more necessary to save the people of America. We love this country. We love this Government. It is a religion, I say. It is a kind of religion people have read of when women, in the name of religion, would take their infant babes and throw them into the burning flame, where they would be instantly devoured by the all-consuming fire, in days gone by; and there probably are some people of the world even today, who, in the name of religion, throw their own babes to destruction; but in the name of our good government, people today are seeing their own children hungry, tired, half-naked, lifting their tear-dimmed eyes into the sad faces of their fathers and mothers, who cannot give them food and clothing they both need, and which is necessary to sustain them, and that goes on day after day, and night after night, when day gets into darkness and blackness, knowing those children would arise in the morning without being fed, and probably go to bed at night without being fed. Yet in the name of our Government, and all alone, those people undertake and strive as hard as they can to keep a good government alive, and how long they can stand that no one knows. If I were in their place tonight, the place where millions are, I hope that I would have what I might say—I cannot give you the word to express the kind of fortitude they have; that is the word—I hope that I might have the fortitude to praise and honor my Government that had allowed me here in this land, where there is too much to eat and too much to wear, to starve in order that a handful of men can have so much more than they can ever eat or they can ever wear. Now, we have organized a society, and we call it "Share Our Wealth Society," a society with the motto "Every Man a King." Every man a king, so there would be no such thing as a man or woman who did not have the necessities of life, who would not be dependent upon the whims and caprices and ipsi dixit of the financial barons for a living. What do we propose by this society? We propose to limit the wealth of big men in the country. There is an average of $15,000 in wealth to every family in America. That is right here today. We do not propose to divide it up equally. We do not propose a division of wealth, but we propose to limit poverty that we will allow to be inflicted upon any man's family. We will not say we are going to try to guarantee any equality, or $15,000 to a family. No; but we do say that one third of the average is low enough for any one family to hold, that there should be a guarantee of a family wealth of around $5,000; enough for a home, an automobile, a radio, and the ordinary conveniences, and the opportunity to educate their children; a fair share of the income of this land thereafter to that family so there will be no such thing as merely the select to have those things, and so there will be no such thing as a family living in poverty and distress. We have to limit fortunes. Our present plan is that we will allow no one man to own more that $50,000,000. We think that with that limit we will be able to carry out the balance of the program. It may be necessary that we limit it to less than $50,000,000. It may be necessary, in working out of the plans that no man's fortune would be more than $10,000,000 or $15,000,000. But be that as it may, it will still be more than any one man, or any one man and his children and their children, will be able to spend in their lifetimes; and it is not necessary or reasonable to have wealth piled up beyond that point where we cannot prevent poverty among the masses. Another thing we propose is old-age pension of $30 a month for everyone that is 60 years old. Now, we do not give this pension to a man making $1,000 a year, and we do not give it to him if he has $10,000 in property, but outside of that we do. We will limit hours of work. There is not any necessity of having overproduction. I think all you have got to do, ladies and gentlemen, is just limit the hours of work to such an extent as people will work only so long as it is necessary to produce enough for all of the people to have what they need. Why, ladies and gentlemen, let us say that all of these labor-saving devices reduce hours down to where you do not have to work but 4 hours a day; that is enough for these people, and then praise be the name of the Lord, if it gets that good. Let it be good and not a curse, and then we will have 5 hours a day and 5 days a week-, or even less than that, and we might give a man a whole month off during a year, or give him 2 months; and we might do what other countries have seen fit to do, and what I did in Louisiana, by having schools by which adults could go back and learn the things that have been discovered since they went to school. We will not have any trouble taking care of the agricultural situation. All you have to do is balance your production with your consumption. You simply have to abandon a particular crop that you have too much of, and all you have to do is store the surplus for the next year, and the Government will take it over. When you have good crops in the area in which the crops that have been planted are sufficient for another year, put in your public works in the particular year when you do not need to raise any more, and by that means you get everybody employed. When the Government has enough of any particular crop to take care of all of the people, that will be all that is necessary; and in order to do all of this, our taxation is going to be to take the billion-dollar fortunes and strip them down to frying size, not to exceed $50,000,000, and if it is necessary to come to $10,000,000, we will come to $10,000,000. We have worked the proposition out to guarantee a limit upon property (and no man will own less than one-third the average), and guarantee a reduction of fortunes and a reduction of hours to spread wealth throughout this country. We would care for the old people above 60 and take them away from this thriving industry and give them a chance to enjoy the necessities and live in ease, and thereby lift from the market the labor which would probably create a surplus of commodities. Those are the things we propose to do. "Every Man a King." Every man to eat when there is something to eat; all to wear something when there is something to wear. That makes us all a sovereign. You cannot solve these things through these various and sundry alphabetical codes. You can have the N. R. A. and P. W. A. and C. W. A. and the U. U. G. and G. I. N. and any other kind of dad-gummed lettered code. You can wait until doomsday and see 25 more alphabets, but that is not going to solve this proposition. Why hide? Why quibble? You know what the trouble is. The man that says he does not know what the trouble is is just hiding his face to keep from seeing the sunlight. God told you what the trouble was. The philosophers told you what the trouble was; and when you have a country where one man owns more than 100,000 people, or a million people, and when you have a country where there are four men, as in America, that have got more control over things than all the 120,000,000 people together, you know what the trouble is. We had these great incomes in this country; but the farmer, who plowed from sunup to sundown, who labored here from sunup to sundown for 6 days a week, wound up at the end of the time with practically nothing. And we ought to take care of the veterans of the wars in this program. That is a small matter. Suppose it does cost a billion dollars a year—that means that the money will be scattered throughout this country. We ought to pay them a bonus. We can do it. We ought to take care of every single one of the sick and disabled veterans. I do not care whether a man got sick on the battlefield or did not; every man that wore the uniform of this country is entitled to be taken care of, and there is money enough to do it; and we need to spread the wealth of the country, which you did not do in what you call the N. R. A. If the N. R. A. has done any good, I can put it all in my eye without having it hurt. All I can see that the N. R. A. has done is to put the little man out of business—the little merchant in his store, the little Italian that is running a fruit stand, or the Greek shoe-shining stand, who has to take hold of a code of 275 pages and study it with a spirit level and compass and looking-glass; he has to hire a Philadelphia lawyer to tell him what is in the code; and by the time he learns what the code is, he is in jail or out of business; and they have got a chain code system that has already put him out of business. The N. R. A. is not worth anything, and I said so when they put it through. Now, my friends, we have got to hit the root with the ax. Centralized power in the hands of a few, with centralized credit in the hands of a few, is the trouble. Get together in your community tonight or tomorrow and organize one of our Share Our Wealth Societies. If you do not understand it, write me and let me send you the platform; let me give you the proof of it. This is Huey P. Long talking, United States Senator, Washington, D. C. Write me and let me send you the data on this proposition. Enroll with us. Let us make known to the people what we are going to do. I will send you a button, if I have got enough of them left. We have got a little button that some of our friends designed, with our message around the rim of the button, and in the center "Every Man a King." Many thousands of them are meeting through the United States, and every day we are getting hundreds and hundreds of letters. Share Our Wealth Societies are now being organized, and people have it within their power to relieve themselves from this terrible situation. Look at what the Mayo brothers announced this week, these greatest scientists of all the world today, who are entitled to have more money than all the Morgans and the Rockefellers, or anyone else, and yet the Mayos turn back their big fortunes to be used for treating the sick, and said they did not want to lay up fortunes in this earth, but wanted to turn them back where they would do some good; but the other big capitalists are not willing to do that, are not willing to do what these men, 10 times more worthy, have already done, and it is going to take a law to require them to do it. Organize your Share Our Wealth Society and get your people to meet with you, and make known your wishes to your Senators and Representatives in Congress. Now, my friends, I am going to stop. I thank you for this opportunity to talk to you. I am having to talk under the auspices and by the grace and permission of the National Broadcasting System tonight, and they are letting me talk free. If I had the money, and I wish I had the money, I would like to talk to you more often on this line, but I have not got it, and I cannot expect these people to give it to me free except on some rare instance. But, my friends, I hope to have the opportunity to talk with you, and I am writing to you, and I hope that you will get up and help in the work, because the resolutions and bills are before Congress, and we hope to have your help in getting together and organizing your Share Our Wealth Societies. Now, that I have but a minute left, I want to say that I suppose my family is listening in on the radio in New Orleans, and I will say to my wife and three children that I am entirely well and hope to be home before many more days, and I hope they have listened to my speech tonight, and I wish them and all of their neighbors and friends everything good that may be had. I thank you, my friends, for your kind attention, and I hope you will enroll with us, take care of your own work in the work of this Government, and share or help in our Share Our Wealth Societies.

or Huey Pierce Long Jr. byname "", was an American politician who served as the 40th governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a member of the United States Senate from 1932 until his assassination in 1935. He was a populist member of the Democratic Party and rose to national prominence during the Great Depression for his vocal criticism from the left of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal. As the political leader of Louisiana, he commanded wide networks of supporters and often took forceful action. A controversial figure, Long is celebrated as a populist champion of the poor or, conversely, denounced as a fascistic demagogue. Long was born in the poor north of Louisiana in 1893. After working as a traveling salesman and attending multiple colleges, Long entered the bar in Louisiana. Following a brief private legal career in which he represented poor plaintiffs against corporations, Long was elected to the Louisiana Public Service Commission. As Commissioner, Long often prosecuted large corporations. In particular, Long despised the Standard Oil Company: it later became a common target of his rhetorical attacks. After Long successfully argued before the U.S. Supreme Court, Chief Justice William Howard Taft praised him as "the most brilliant lawyer who ever practiced" before the court. After a failed 1924 campaign, Long used the sharp economic and class divisions in Louisiana to win the 1928 gubernatorial election. Once in office, Long filled government jobs with patronage appointments and passed legislation distributing free textbooks to students, previously a barrier for poor Louisianians seeking an education. Accused of abuses of power, he was impeached in 1929, but the proceedings collapsed in the Louisiana Senate. During Long's years in power, he greatly expanded social programs. He organized massive public works projects, including a modern highway system and the tallest state capitol building in the nation. To address low agricultural commodity prices due to overproduction, Long proposed a cotton holiday. Through political maneuvering, Long became the political boss of Louisiana. His opponents argued his policies and methods were unconstitutional and dictatorial. At its climax, political opposition organized a minor insurrection. Long successfully ran for the U.S. Senate in 1930, although he did not assume his seat until 1932. With an enthusiastic campaign, Long helped elect Hattie Caraway, the first woman to win a full term in the United States Senate. Long established himself as an isolationist, arguing that Standard Oil and Wall Street influenced American foreign policy. He was integral in securing Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1932 nomination and was a supporter through Roosevelt's first 100 days in office. Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and became a prominent critic of his New Deal. As an alternative, he proposed the Share Our Wealth program in 1934. To stimulate the economy, he advocated massive federal spending, a wealth tax, and wealth redistribution. These proposals drew wide support, with millions joining local Share Our Wealth clubs. Poised for a 1936 presidential bid, a lone assassin mortally wounded Long in 1935. Although Long's movement faded, Roosevelt adopted many of his proposals in the Second New Deal. In Louisiana, Long permanently altered the political landscape. Elections would be organized along anti- or pro-Long factions until the 1960s. He left behind a political dynasty, which included his wife, Senator Rose McConnell Long; his son, Senator Russell B. Long; and his brothers, Governor Earl Long and U.S. Representative George S. Long, among others. (August 30, 1893 – September 10, 1935).

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How many people can the current water supply in your area sustain? What determining factors could change the water supply in the future. What are the things that you have to do in order to maintain safe drinking water? How much time, people and resources would it take to supply water for all necessary needs without waste and abuse? How much time, people and resources would it take to clean our polluted water? .

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Each person should learn everything there is to know about . How to manage water supplies and how to keep water clean and plentiful without waste.

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Homes that use 41 gallons or less of hot water daily, can be 24% to 34% more energy-efficient than storage tank heaters.

How much land is available to grow food? How many people could this land sustain? How much time, people and resources to feed yourself and others with the recommended daily nutritional requirements for optimum health? How much time, people and resources would it take to create more Local Farms Sustainably?

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is an enclosed space in which fuel is burned to heat either the space in which the stove is situated, or items placed on the heated stove itself. There are many types of stoves such as the which is used to , and the or a coal stove which is typically used for heating a dwelling. Due to concerns about air pollution, efforts have been made to improve the stove design over the years. Pellet stoves, for example, are a type of clean-burning stove, and air-tight stoves are another type that combust the wood more completely and therefore reduce the amount of the resulted combustion by-products. In the U.S. since 1992, all wood stoves being manufactured are required to limit particulate emission. .

compact, efficient and upgradable. . - . -

is an efficient and hot burning stove using small-diameter wood fuel. Fuel is burned in a simple combustion chamber containing an insulated vertical chimney, which ensures almost complete combustion prior to the flames' reaching the cooking surface. It uses the same principle as the Dakota fire pit. Rocket stove designs are most often used for portable stoves for cooking but the design is also used to make rocket mass heaters for heating. Like the beverage-can stove, it is made from found materials, but generally uses wood rather than alcohol. In field tests in India, rocket stoves used 18 to 35 per cent less fuel compared to the traditional stoves and reduced fuel used 39-47 per cent compared to the three-stone fire, as well as a large reduction in emissions. A precursor of the rocket stove was the Argand lamp. The idea has been commercialized as the Kelly Kettle and the InStove. - (youtube) - - .

(biolite)-

(biopellet) (youtube)

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(ovens, frying, preperation)

is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid). Convection takes place through , or both. .

is a body with a higher temperature which transfers energy to a body with a lower temperature through . Depending on the temperature of the emitting body, the wavelength of the peak of the infrared radiation ranges from 780 nm to 1 mm. No contact or medium between the two bodies is needed for the energy transfer. Infrared heaters can be operated in vacuum or atmosphere.

heats a cooking vessel by induction, instead of by thermal conduction from a flame, or an electrical heating element. Because inductive heating directly heats the vessel, very rapid increases in temperature can be achieved.

is the process of heating an electrically conducting object (usually a metal) by , which is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field, through heat generated in the object by eddy currents (also called Foucault currents). An induction heater consists of an electromagnet, and an electronic oscillator that passes a high-frequency alternating current (AC) through the electromagnet. The rapidly alternating penetrates the object, generating electric currents inside the conductor called eddy currents. The eddy currents flowing through the resistance of the material heat it by Joule heating. In ferromagnetic (and ) materials like iron, heat may also be generated by magnetic hysteresis losses. The frequency of current used depends on the object size, material type, coupling (between the work coil and the object to be heated) and the penetration depth.

: Cook Perfect Food (amazon)

We need to combine an with an intelligent Stove. ()

Smart Cooking System Precisely control pan temperature or liquid temperature to make perfect dishes every time.

Marquette Castings Skillets made by combining a superior casting process with an unparalleled seasoning process.

(youtube)

is a simple but revolutionary, . It continues to cook food which has been brought to the boil by conventional methods for up to 8 hours without the use of additional electricity or fuel.

is a capable of burning wood fuel and wood-derived biomass fuel, such as wood pellets. Generally the appliance consists of a solid metal (usually cast iron or steel) closed chamber, a fire brick base and an adjustable air control. The stove is connected by ventilating stove pipes to a suitable chimney or flue, which will fill with hot combustion gases once the fuel is ignited. The chimney or flue gases must be hotter than the outside temperature to ensure combustion gases are drawn out of the fire chamber and up the chimney. (secondary combustion) Many wood-burning stoves are engineered such that they can be converted to multi-fuel stoves with the addition of a grate.

Cooking with wood or coal is linked to . About three billion people around the world live in households that regularly burn wood.

: Traditional stoves; natural-draft stoves; and forced-draft stoves, which use battery-powered fans to improve combustion. While traditional stoves emitted an average of 6 grams of PM per kilogram of fuel burned (g/kg), that number jumps to an average of 14 g/kg when you include the PM that the emissions form over time, due to chemical reactions that take place in the atmosphere.

Wood Burning Stoves can also make , sometimes also known as biocrude or biooil, is a synthetic fuel under investigation as substitute for petroleum. It is extracted by biomass to liquid technology of destructive distillation from dried biomass in a reactor at temperature of about 500 °C with subsequent cooling. Pyrolytic oil (or bio-oil) is a kind of tar and normally contains too high levels of oxygen to be a hydrocarbon. As such it is distinctly different from similar petroleum products.

Wood Stove can also make for cooking or .

: TULA 8190 / Efficiency: 88% LHV / Heats up to: 1,200 sq ft / Firebox Capacity: 1.4 cu ft / Size: Up to 30,000 BTUs / EPA Certified: 2.6 gph / Efficiency: 88% LHV / Burn Time: Up to 6 hours / Maximum Log Length: 17" ().

is a highly efficient small wood stove, needing only 6 inches of clearance on sides, weighs just 56 pounds, cook top surface, optional accessories will generate electricity, bake, and heat water. Produces just 3.2 grams/hour emissions because of and double walled stove pipe. Also takes air from outside. 3 inch exhaust pipe.

(youtube) - (wiki)

is a mass of resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. It is more properly restricted to the product of the gas-phase combustion process but is commonly extended to include the residual pyrolysed fuel particles such as coal, cenospheres, charred wood, and petroleum coke that may become airborne during pyrolysis and that are more properly identified as cokes or chars. Soot causes and lung disease, and is theorized to be the second-biggest human cause of . .

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Open both front dampers completely before starting a fire. Place wood in the firebox and light the fire. Allow the fire to burn for between 10 to 30 minutes before adjusting the dampers. Close the front damper slowly and observe the smoke escaping from the chimney.

is a thermally insulated chamber used for the , baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are special-purpose ovens used in pottery and metalworking, respectively.

is one of the simplest and most ancient cooking structures. At its most basic, an earth oven is a pit in the ground used to trap heat and bake, smoke, or steam food. Earth ovens have been used in many places and cultures in the past, and the presence of such cooking pits is a key sign of human settlement often sought by archaeologists. Earth ovens remain a common tool for cooking large quantities of food where no equipment is available. They have been used in various civilizations around the world and are still commonly found in the Pacific region to date.

(cooking using sun energy)

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regenerative soil-building heat recovery systems.

is a traditional Peruvian dish based on the baking, with the aid of hot stones (the earthen oven is known as a huatia), of lamb, mutton, pork, chicken or guinea pig, marinated in spices.

is a process of moving from one location to another in controlled conditions. The idea of dates back to at least the ancient Roman and Chinese empires. Refrigeration has reduced stomach cancer and other diseases. The history of artificial refrigeration began when Scottish professor William Cullen designed a small in 1755, In 1913, refrigerators for home and domestic use were invented by Fred W. Wolf of Fort Wayne, Indiana with models consisting of a unit that was mounted on top of an ice box. The first refrigerator to see widespread use was the General Electric "Monitor-Top" refrigerator introduced in 1927. .

is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential technique in developed countries. The lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F). A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator replaced the icebox, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half. For this reason, a refrigerator is sometimes referred to as an icebox in American usage.

Standard and can use .

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is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle. In most cycles it undergoes phase transitions from a liquid to a gas and back again. Many working fluids have been used for such purposes. Fluorocarbons, especially chlorofluorocarbons, became commonplace in the 20th century, but they are being phased out because of their ozone depletion effects. Other common refrigerants used in various applications are ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as propane. Under Section 608 of the . SNAP approved hydrocarbon substitutes (isobutane and propane: R600a, R441a and R290), ammonia and CO2 are exempt from the venting prohibition. Emissions from automobile air conditioning are a growing concern because of their impact on climate change. When refrigerants are removed they should be recycled to clean out any contaminants and return them to a usable condition.

are that serve as refrigerants in refrigeration systems (including refrigerators, HVAC, and air conditioning). They are alternatives to hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based refrigerants. Unlike other refrigerants, they are not synthetic chemicals and can sometimes be found in nature. They are not only used due to as some applications are better suited to a particular natural refrigerant. HFC, HCFC, CFC classes of chemicals are all potent greenhouse gases. HCFC and CFC classes of chemicals are damaging to the ozone layer, with CFCs being a primary culprit. like and do not deplete the ozone layer and have a much lower impact on the environment. Though they may exist in nature, they are not entirely harmless or nontoxic but aside from are generally less harmful in the event of refrigerant release, although most are highly flammable.

or HFCs, are organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds. They are commonly used in air conditioning and as refrigerants in place of the older chlorofluorocarbons such as R-12 and hydrochlorofluorocarbons such as R-21. They as much as the compounds they replace; however, . Their atmospheric concentrations and contribution to anthropogenic emissions are rapidly increasing, causing international concern about their . HFCs are hundreds to thousands of times more potent a greenhouse gas than .

or CFCs, are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only (ĐĄ), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane. They are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name , which .

Vast majority of refrigerators and air conditioners hydrofluorocarbons and hydrocarbons (HFCs and HCs) are toxic and flammable. When they leak into the air, they also contribute to global warming. Refrigeration and air conditioning currently devour a fifth of the energy produced worldwide, and demand for cooling is only going up.

in a plastic crystal of neopentylglycol (NPG) and other related organic compounds has leveled the playfield. Plastic Crystals refers not to its chemical composition but rather to its malleability. Plastic crystals lie at the boundary between solids and liquids. Compressing NPG yields unprecedentedly large thermal changes due to molecular reconfiguration.

is an organic chemical compound. It is used in the synthesis of polyesters, paints, lubricants, and plasticizers. When used in the manufacture of polyesters, it enhances the stability of the product towards heat, light, and water. By esterification reaction with fatty or carboxylic acids, synthetic lubricating esters with reduced potential for oxidation or hydrolysis, compared to natural esters, can be produced. It has been reported that plastic crystals of neopentyl glycol exhibit a colossal barocaloric effect (CBCEs), which is a cooling effect caused by pressure-induced phase transitions. The obtained entropy changes are about 389 joules per kilogram per kelvin near room temperature. This CBCE phenomenon is likely to be very useful in future solid-state refrigeration technologies.

is a cooling technology based on the magnetocaloric effect. This technique can be used to attain extremely low temperatures, as well as the ranges used in common refrigerators. Compared to traditional gas-compression refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration is safer, quieter, more compact, has a higher cooling efficiency, and is more environmentally friendly because it does not use harmful, ozone-depleting coolant gases.

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is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. An air compressor is a specific type of gas compressor. - .

is a gas compressor where the piston moves along a linear track to compress to minimize energy loss during conversion. This technology has been successfully used in space where oil can not be tolerated. Kun Liang recently reviewed the linear compressor technologies for .

is a type of compression refrigerator which uses combustion of propane to directly drive the compressor, in contrast to conventional electric refrigerators which use an electrical compressor.

is a refrigerator which runs on energy directly provided by sun, and may include photovoltaic or solar thermal energy. Solar-powered refrigerators are able to keep perishable goods such as meat and dairy cool in hot climates, and are used to keep much needed vaccines at their appropriate temperature to avoid spoilage. Solar-powered refrigerators are typically used in off-the-grid locations where utility provided AC power is not available.

is a refrigerator that is foreseen with thermal mass as well as insulation to decrease the energy use of the refrigerator.

. Thermoacoustics in solids eventually harnessing the extreme temperature gradient of outer space for electricity on satellites. A solid can serve as a medium for heat and interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators -- resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer.

are the conceptual and mathematical models for heat pumps and refrigerators. A heat pump is a mechanical system that allows for the transference of heat from one location (the "source") at a lower temperature to another location (the "sink" or "heat sink") at a higher temperature. Thus a heat pump may be thought of as a "heater" if the objective is to warm the heat sink (as when warming the inside of a home on a cold day), or a "refrigerator" if the objective is to cool the heat source (as in the normal operation of a freezer). In either case, the operating principles are identical. Heat is moved from a cold place to a warm place. According to the , heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter area; work is required to achieve this. An air conditioner requires work to cool a living space, moving heat from the cooler interior (the heat source) to the warmer outdoors (the heat sink). Similarly, a refrigerator moves heat from inside the cold icebox (the heat source) to the warmer room-temperature air of the kitchen (the heat sink). The operating principle of the refrigeration cycle was described mathematically by Sadi Carnot in 1824 as a heat engine. A heat pump can be thought of as a heat engine which is operating in reverse.

is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid, and gaseous states of matter, as well as plasma in rare cases. A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties. During a phase transition of a given medium, certain properties of the medium change, often discontinuously, as a result of the change of external conditions, such as temperature, pressure, or others. For example, a liquid may become gas upon heating to the boiling point, resulting in an abrupt change in volume. The measurement of the external conditions at which the transformation occurs is termed the phase transition. Phase transitions commonly occur in nature and are used today in many technologies. include vaporization, condensation, melting, freezing, sublimation, and deposition. Evaporation, a type of vaporization, occurs when particles of a liquid reach a high enough energy to leave the surface of the liquid and change into the gas state. An example of evaporation is a puddle of water drying out. .

is a refrigerator that uses a heat source (e.g., solar energy, a fossil-fueled flame, waste heat from factories, or district heating systems) to provide the energy needed to drive the cooling process. The principle can also be used to air-condition buildings using the waste heat from a gas turbine or water heater. Using waste heat from a gas turbine makes the turbine very efficient because it first produces electricity, then hot water, and finally, air-conditioning (called cogeneration/trigeneration). ().

is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration or combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector. The terms cogeneration and trigeneration can be also applied to the power systems generating simultaneously electricity, heat, and industrial chemicals – e.g., syngas or pure hydrogen (article: combined cycles, chapter: natural gas integrated power & syngas (hydrogen) generation cycle).

is the interaction between , density and pressure variations of acoustic waves. Thermoacoustic heat engines can readily be driven using solar energy or waste heat and they can be controlled using proportional control. They can use heat available at low temperatures which makes it ideal for heat recovery and low power applications. The components included in thermoacoustic engines are usually very simple compared to conventional engines. The device can easily be controlled and maintained.

are thermoacoustic devices which use high-amplitude to pump heat from one place to another, or conversely use a heat difference to induce high-amplitude sound waves. In general, thermoacoustic engines can be divided into standing wave and travelling wave devices. These two types of thermoacoustics devices can again be divided into two thermodynamic classes, a prime mover (or simply heat engine), and a heat pump. The prime mover creates work using heat, whereas a heat pump creates or moves heat using work. Compared to vapor refrigerators, thermoacoustic refrigerators have no ozone-depleting or toxic coolant and few or no moving parts therefore require no dynamic sealing or lubrication.

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is a structure built underground or partially underground and used to store , fruits, and nuts or other foods. Root cellars are for keeping food supplies at a low temperature and steady humidity. They keep food from freezing during the winter and keep food cool during the summer months to .

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was introduced to Britain around 1660, though it was used by a some people in other areas in the world for over a thousand years prior.

is made during the winter when ice and snow would be taken into the ice house and packed with insulation, often straw or sawdust. It would remain frozen for many months, often until the following winter, and could be used as a source of ice during summer months. The main application of the ice was the storage of perishable foods, but it could also be used simply to cool drinks, or allow ice-cream and sorbet desserts to be prepared.

is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed. Ancient or primitive granaries are most often made out of pottery. Granaries are often built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals.

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(farming)

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(youtube) (amazon) (amazon) (amazon) (amazon) (youtube) -

Each person will learn everything there is to know about including the importance of knowing .

for will be similar - Find Food......Grow Food.....Nutrition Needs......and so on

- If you can connect learning with food, then .

"When you teach someone how to grow food, you can also teach them at the same time about science, math, chemistry, geology, nutrition, energy, food preparation, weather, soil, water, air, insects and animals... Earth is the classroom."

First determine the , communities and homes on the land that is available, based on research from experts who have assed the for its needs as well as the needs of the people who plan to developed that particular land space? What would be the max size of these cities and communities to live and provide equal services for each person? How much time, people and resources would it require to provide shelter that is sustainable, safe, healthy, and low in maintenance? How much time, people and resources would it require to upgrade existing houses and buildings to be healthy, energy efficient and low in maintenance? Living within the that nature allows.

should have , clean energy, fresh air circulation, be toxic free, have and working locks, have for the winter months, be insect free and noise free, have working , and have fire safety and smoke detectors.

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Every home should be durable, long-lasting and easy to maintain. Every home should use . Every home should have healthy indoor air that is clean from contaminants. Every home should produce its own energy. Every home should use electricity effectively and efficiently. Every home should use water effectively and efficiently. Shelter needs to be a quiet sanctuary so that you may rest and sleep. Shelter must also be a place for personal entertainment. Shelter must also be a place to raise a family. Shelter must also be a place to be , productive meaning being able to read, write, communicate, learn and provide a needed service for your community. Being productive can also be about having a place to exercise, a place for researching, a place to work on projects, a place to practice and a place for training.

Open Source Tools and Machines

is the conformance of a residence or abode to the implied warranty of habitability. A residence that complies is said to be habitable. It is an implied warranty or contract, meaning it does not have to be an express contract, covenant, or provision of a contract. There was no implied warranty of habitability for tenants at common law and the legal doctrine has since developed in many jurisdictions through housing laws and regulations. In order to be habitable, such housing usually: Must provide shelter, with working locks. Must be heated in the winter months (typically between October 1 and May 31 in the Northeastern United States). Must not be infested with vermin, roaches, termites, or mold. Requires the landlord to stop other tenants from making too much noise (as measured by the decibel scale), second-hand smoke, or from selling narcotics. Must provide potable water. Each jurisdiction may have various rules.

- (Sustainable Homes) -

(video) (video and interactive text)

  • - (green building)

Each person should learn everything there is to know about . How to choose the to build a shelter. How to choose the right land and area to . What materials are available to build that are safe and sustainable. What is the best structure for this area that is totally energy efficient? . How to utilize existing shelters. The size of the house is estimated by its intended purposes and needs. Building no more space then you need and be energy efficient. A house must provide you with a healthy environment so that you can be productive and as well as comfortable. A house must also be in balance with the surrounding environment. Be self-sustainable and not be dependent on other environments in order to maintain itself and preserve its existence. If the surrounding environment is not sustainable for a home then you will need , or relocation options.

: Must provide shelter, with working locks. Must be heated in the winter months. Must not be infested with vermin, roaches, termites, or mold. Requires the landlord to stop other tenants from making too much noise (as measured by the decibel scale), second-hand smoke, or from selling narcotics. Must provide potable water.

for will be similar like the one above for ...Find Shelter......Build Shelter.....Shelter Maintenance......and so on.

"When you teach someone how to build a house you can also teach them at the same time about engineering, science, math, problem solving, sanitation, clean water, energy uses, energy sources, environment, community and society...Life is the Classroom."

is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility.

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at 18 storeys (53 metres, about 174 feet) steel and concrete hybrid. Completed less than 70 days after the prefabricated components were first delivered to the site. $51.5 million for 400 people.

dates from the late 6th century BC. The area is a popular tourist destination, as it has many areas with unique geological, historic, and cultural features. People of the villages at the heart of the Cappadocia Region carved out houses, churches and monasteries from the soft rocks of volcanic deposits. Göreme became a monastic centre in 300–1200 AD.

What are available that would provide safe and energy for every person in the city or community? How much time, people and resources would it require to provide you with all your energy needs without waste or abuse?

. Of the 25 million households that reported and medicine to pay energy bills, 7 million people in America face that decision nearly every month.

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v7 is a modular engine unit that powers all mechanical machines in the Global Village Construction Set.

a non-profit organization dedicated to deliver to those who need it most.

The average household in America consumes (kWh) per year. All other households in the world combined consumes less energy per year then American homes. I use less than 300 KWH a Month, except in the winter.

Each person should learn everything there is to know about . How energy works and how it is used to increase production. How energy is used to improve living conditions. What are the energy producing alternatives that are the most sustainable, produce minimal waste and have energy input output ratio. .

is a rating and a unit of the during a typical cooling-season divided by the total electric energy input during the same period.

is a dimensionless of a device that uses , such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, a furnace, or a refrigerator for example. For a power cycle, thermal efficiency indicates the extent to which the energy added by heat is converted to net work output. In the case of a or heat pump cycle, thermal efficiency indicates the extent to which the energy added by work is converted to net heat output.

of a heat pump, refrigerator or is a ratio of useful heating or cooling provided to work required. Higher COPs equate to lower operating costs.

refers to the difference between the energy expended to harvest an energy source and the amount of energy gained from that harvest.

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Vehicles with

(efficient stoves saves trees)

(youtube)

are electrical/mechanical which accomplish some household functions, such as /heating, or cleaning.

(stoves for cooking food)

is a large machine in home appliance used for routine housekeeping tasks such as cooking, , or food preservation. An appliance is different from a fixture because it uses or fuel.

are portable or semi-portable machines, generally used on table-tops, counter-tops, or other platforms, to accomplish a household task. Examples include microwave ovens, toasters, humidifiers, and coffee makers. They contrast with major appliances (British "white goods"), such as the and , which cannot be easily moved and are generally placed on the floor. Small appliances also contrast with consumer electronics (British "brown goods") which are for leisure and entertainment rather than purely practical tasks.

. This is equivalent to the annual emissions of 6.8 million cars. Microwave appliance usage across the EU consumes an estimated . This is equivalent to the annual electricity generated by three large gas power plants. Efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behavior to use appliances more .

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are or digital equipment intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. Consumer electronics include devices used for entertainment (, DVD players, DVD movies, iPods, video games, remote control cars, etc.), communications (, cell phones, e-mail-capable laptops, etc.), and home-office activities (e.g., desktop , printers, paper shredders, etc.).

Homes that use 41 gallons or less of hot water daily, can be 24% to 34% more energy-efficient than storage tank heaters. .

use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore, they can be two to three times more energy efficient than conventional electric resistance water heaters. To move the heat, heat pumps work like a refrigerator in reverse. While a pulls heat from inside a box and dumps it into the surrounding room, a stand-alone air-source heat pump water heater pulls heat from the surrounding air and dumps it -- at a higher temperature -- into a tank to heat water. You can purchase a stand-alone heat pump water heating system as an integrated unit with a built-in water storage tank and back-up resistance heating elements. You can also retrofit a heat pump to work with an existing conventional storage water heater. Heat pump water heaters require installation in locations that remain in the 40Âș–90ÂșF (4.4Âș–32.2ÂșC) range year-round and provide at least 1,000 cubic feet (28.3 cubic meters) of air space around the water heater. Cool exhaust air can be exhausted to the room or outdoors. Install them in a space with excess heat, such as a furnace room. Heat pump water heaters will not operate in a cold space. They tend to cool the spaces they are in. You can also install an air-source heat pump system that combines heating, cooling, and water heating. These combination systems pull their heat indoors from the outdoor air in the winter and from the indoor air in the summer. Because they remove heat from the air, any type of air-source heat pump system works more efficiently in a warm climate. Homeowners primarily install geothermal heat pumps -- which draw heat from the ground during the winter and from the indoor air during the summer -- for heating and cooling their homes. For water heating, you can add a to a geothermal heat pump system. A desuperheater is a small, auxiliary heat exchanger that uses superheated gases from the heat pump's compressor to heat water. This hot water then circulates through a pipe to the home's storage water heater tank. Desuperheaters are also available for tankless or demand-type water heaters. In the summer, the desuperheater uses the excess heat that would otherwise be expelled to the ground. Therefore, when the geothermal heat pump runs frequently during the summer, it can heat all of your water. During the fall, winter, and spring -- when the desuperheater isn't producing as much excess heat -- you'll need to rely more on your storage or demand water heater to heat the water. Some manufacturers also offer triple-function geothermal heat pump systems, which provide heating, cooling, and hot water. They use a separate heat exchanger to meet all of a household's hot water needs. .

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is a building design approach that focuses on heat gain control and dissipation in a building in order to improve the indoor thermal comfort with low or nil energy consumption. This approach works either by preventing heat from entering the interior () or by removing heat from the building (natural cooling). Natural cooling utilizes on-site energy, available from the natural environment, combined with the architectural design of building components (e.g. building envelope), rather than . Therefore, natural cooling depends not only on the architectural design of the building but on how the site's natural resources are used as (i.e. everything that absorbs or dissipates heat). Examples of on-site heat sinks are the upper atmosphere (night sky), the outdoor air (wind), and the earth/soil. .

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is a rigorous, voluntary standard for energy efficiency in a building, reducing its ecological footprint. It results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling. standard requires that the building fulfills the following requirements: Passive solar design and landscape, Superinsulation, Advanced window technology, Airtightness, Ventilation, Space heating, Lighting and electrical appliances. The building must be designed to have an annual heating and cooling demand as calculated with the Planning Package of not more than 15 kWh/m2 (4,755 BTU/sq ft; 5.017 MJ/sq ft) per year in heating or cooling energy OR be designed with a peak heat load of 10 W/m2 (1.2 hp/1000 sq ft). Total primary energy (source energy for electricity, etc.) consumption (primary energy for heating, hot water and electricity) must not be more than 60 kWh/m2 (19,020 BTU/sq ft; 20.07 MJ/sq ft) per year. The building must not leak more air than 0.6 times the house volume per hour (n50 ≀ 0.6 / hour) at 50 Pa (0.0073 psi) as tested by a blower door, or alternatively when looked at the surface area of the enclosure, the leakage rate must be less than 0.05 cubic feet per minute. Further, the specific heat load for the heating source at design temperature is recommended, but not required, to be less than 10 W/mÂČ (3.17 btu/h·ftÂČ). These standards are much higher than houses built to most normal building codes. For comparisons, see the international comparisons section below. National partners within the 'consortium for the Promotion of European Passive Houses' are thought to have some flexibility to adapt these limits locally. .

is using windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, reflect, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices. The key to design a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate performing an accurate site analysis. Elements to be considered include window placement and size, and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, and shading. Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be adapted or "retrofitted".

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! (youtube) - Undecided with Matt Ferrell.

is a device that cools air through the . Evaporative cooling differs from typical air conditioning systems, which use vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycles. Evaporative cooling works by exploiting water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation). This can cool air using than refrigeration. In extremely dry climates, evaporative cooling of air has the added benefit of conditioning the air with more moisture for the comfort of building occupants. The cooling potential for evaporative cooling is dependent on the wet-bulb depression, the difference between dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature. In arid climates, evaporative cooling can reduce energy consumption and total equipment for conditioning as an alternative to compressor-based cooling. In climates not considered arid, indirect evaporative cooling can still take advantage of the evaporative cooling process without increasing humidity. Passive evaporative cooling strategies can offer the same benefits of mechanical evaporative cooling systems without the complexity of equipment and ductwork. (exercising).

(youtube)

. Radiative sky cooling to passively cool a fluid in a panel.

refers to any air conditioning (cooling) system that uses solar power. This can be done through passive solar, solar thermal energy conversion and photovoltaic conversion (sunlight to electricity). (image).

s a form of energy and a technology for harnessing to generate or electrical energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors. There were about 750 cooling systems with solar-driven heat pumps, and annual market growth was 40 to 70% over the prior seven years.

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. is one of the key elements of a passive or a low energy house. Most important parts of thermal envelope include outer walls, roof, foundation, windows and doors. The purpose of the thermal envelope is to prevent form interior of a house to its exterior in winter and vice versa in summer. .

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, lowers temperature at least 5 degrees. The faster air moves, the lower pressure it has, evaporative cooling from the faster stream.

- eco friendly ice cooling personal eco- friendly ice cooling with refrigerant mixtures, which consumes less than 1 cent per day! Rechargeable Battery gives 5 Hours.

Portable AC Unit Cools 50 square feet room down to 44 degrees F using a 1100 BTU cooling power to cool down a small closed space. 12V (DC, AC) input which saves energy. Each interchangeable battery delivers 5 hours of cooling for keeping your sleep comfortable.

is 98% more energy efficient than air conditioning and whisper quiet.

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(youtube) - Tech Ingredients. are small, pegged plastic balls mainly used as the biological media in ponds. These little plastic bio balls have TONS of surface area for the growth of bacteria for filtration. Bioballs promote gas exchange and increase dissolved oxygen levels, then filter the water as the bio-balls combine with organic waste to dissolve it. Bio balls work best as wet-dry filters, with moving water passing over them. This allows more oxygen into the tubing, feeding the growth of the beneficial bacteria inside the balls.

has the ability to cool objects even under direct sunlight with zero energy and water consumption. When applied to a surface, the metamaterial film cools the object underneath by efficiently reflecting incoming back into space while simultaneously allowing the surface to shed its own heat in the form of infrared thermal radiation. glass-polymer hybrid material measures just 50 micrometers thick — slightly thicker than the aluminum foil found in a kitchen — and can be manufactured economically on rolls, making it a potentially viable large-scale technology for both residential and commercial applications. passive radiative cooling, the process by which objects naturally shed heat in the form of infrared radiation, without consuming energy.

improves the efficiency of all cooling systems by that escapes earth and heads to space, carrying heat along with it.

is generated by the of charged particles in matter. All matter with a greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. When the temperature of a body is greater than absolute zero, inter-atomic collisions cause the of the or molecules to change. This results in charge-acceleration and/or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation, and the wide spectrum of radiation reflects the wide spectrum of energies and accelerations that occur even at a single . Examples of thermal radiation include the emitted by an incandescent light bulb, the infrared radiation emitted by animals is detectable with an infrared camera, and the cosmic microwave background radiation. Thermal radiation is different from thermal convection and thermal conduction—a person near a raging bonfire feels from the fire, even if the surrounding air is very cold. Sunlight is part of thermal radiation generated by the hot plasma of the Sun. The Earth also emits thermal radiation, but at a much lower intensity and different spectral distribution (infrared rather than visible) because it is cooler. The Earth's absorption of solar radiation, followed by its outgoing thermal radiation are the two most important processes that determine the temperature and climate of the Earth. If a radiation-emitting object meets the physical characteristics of a black body in , the radiation is called blackbody radiation. Planck's law describes the spectrum of blackbody radiation, which depends only on the object's temperature. Wien's displacement law determines the most likely frequency of the emitted radiation, and the Stefan–Boltzmann law gives the radiant intensity. Thermal radiation is one of the fundamental mechanisms of .

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is the process by which a body loses heat by , which is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of in matter. All with a greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. Particle results in charge-acceleration or dipole oscillation which produce electromagnetic radiation. (Night-Sky Cooling).

is the overall dynamic property of the earth's , taken as a whole at each place and occasion of interest, that lets some radiation from the cloud tops and land-sea surface pass directly to space without intermediate absorption and re-emission, and thus without heating the atmosphere. It cannot be defined simply as a part or set of parts of the , because the spectral composition of window radiation varies greatly with varying local environmental conditions, such as water vapour content and land-sea surface temperature, and because few or no parts of the spectrum are simply not absorbed at all, and because some of the diffuse radiation is passing nearly vertically upwards and some is passing nearly horizontally. A large gap in the absorption spectrum of water vapor, the main greenhouse gas, is most important in the dynamics of the window. Other gases, especially carbon dioxide and ozone, partly block transmission. An atmospheric window is a dynamic property of the , while the spectral window is a static characteristic of the electromagnetic radiative absorption spectra of many greenhouse gases, including . The atmospheric window tells what actually happens in the atmosphere, while the spectral window tells of one of the several abstract factors that potentially contribute to the actual concrete happenings in the atmosphere. Window radiation is radiation that actually passes through the atmospheric window. Non-window radiation is radiation that actually does not pass through the atmospheric window. Window wavelength radiation is radiation that, judging only from its , potentially might or might not, but is likely to pass through the atmospheric window. Non-window wavelength radiation is radiation that, judging only from its wavelength, is unlikely to pass through the atmospheric window. The difference between window radiation and window wavelength radiation is that window radiation is an actual component of the radiation, determined by the full dynamics of the atmosphere, taking in all determining factors, while window wavelength radiation is merely theoretically potential, defined only by one factor, the wavelength.

is that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be transmitted through the atmosphere without any distortion or absorption. Light in certain wavelength regions can penetrate the atmosphere well. These regions are called atmospheric windows.

. There can be a few health problems and side effects associated with air conditioning. Studies confirm that multiply faster in cold conditions like those created by air conditioners. The cold conditions also dehydrates the lining within the nose, making it more susceptible to infection. If Air Conditioning systems aren't maintained properly, you can get a buildup of bacterial pathogens which can cause illnesses such as Legionnaires' disease, which is a severe form of pneumonia or Pontiac fever, which is a milder infection than Legionnaires' disease. Bacterial pathogens can also cause a runny nose, sore throat and allergic reactions.

is a powered machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air. A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air. The and hub is known as an impeller, a rotor, or a runner. Usually, it is contained within some form of housing or case. This may direct the airflow or increase safety by preventing objects from contacting the fan blades. Most fans are powered by electric motors, but other sources of power may be used, including hydraulic motors, handcranks, internal combustion engines, and solar power. Mechanically, a fan can be any revolving vane or vanes used for producing currents of air. Fans produce air flows with high volume and low pressure (although higher than ambient pressure), as opposed to compressors which produce high pressures at a comparatively low volume. A fan blade will often rotate when exposed to an air fluid stream, and devices that take advantage of this, such as anemometers and wind turbines, often have designs similar to that of a fan. - .

is an air moving arrangement whereby a mechanical fan, which is a type of propeller, is mounted within a cylindrical shroud or duct. The duct reduces losses in thrust from the tips of the propeller blades, and varying the cross-section of the duct allows the designer to advantageously affect the velocity and pressure of the airflow according to Bernoulli's principle. Ducted fan propulsion is used in aircraft, airships, airboats, hovercraft and fan packs. A jet fan is a stationary ducted fan used to move air through buildings or tunnels. Ducted fans normally have more and shorter blades than conventional propellers and thus can operate at higher rotational speeds.

is a type of fan that causes gas to flow through it in an axial direction, parallel to the shaft about which the blades rotate. The flow is axial at entry and exit. The fan is designed to produce a pressure difference, and hence force, to cause a flow through the fan. Factors which determine the performance of the fan include the number and shape of the blades. Fans have many applications including in wind tunnels and cooling towers. Design parameters include power, flow rate, pressure rise and efficiency. Axial fans generally comprise fewer blades (two to six) than ducted fans. Axial fans commonly have larger radius and lower speed (?) than ducted fans (esp. at similar power. Stress proportional to r^2).

is a mechanical device for moving air or other gases in a direction at an angle to the incoming fluid. Centrifugal fans often contain a ducted housing to direct outgoing air in a specific direction or across a heat sink; such a fan is also called a blower fan, biscuit blower, or squirrel-cage fan (because it looks like a ). These fans increase the speed and volume of an air stream with the rotating impellers. Centrifugal fans use the kinetic energy of the impellers to increase the volume of the air stream, which in turn moves against the resistance caused by ducts, dampers and other components. Centrifugal fans displace air radially, changing the direction (typically by 90°) of the airflow. They are sturdy, quiet, reliable, and capable of operating over a wide range of conditions. Centrifugal fans are constant-displacement or constant-volume devices, meaning that, at a constant fan speed, a centrifugal fan moves a relatively constant volume of air rather than a constant mass. This means that the air velocity in a system is fixed even though the mass flow rate through the fan is not. Centrifugal fans are not positive-displacement devices and centrifugal fans have certain advantages and disadvantages when contrasted with positive-displacement blowers: centrifugal fans are more efficient, whereas positive-displacement blowers may have a lower capital cost. The centrifugal fan is one of the most widely used fans. Centrifugal fans are by far the most prevalent type of fan used in the HVAC industry today. They are often cheaper than axial fans and simpler in construction. They are used in transporting gas or materials and in ventilation systems for buildings and vehicles. They are also well-suited for industrial processes and air pollution control systems. The centrifugal fan has a drum shape composed of a number of fan blades mounted around a hub. As shown in the animated figure, the hub turns on a driveshaft mounted in bearings in the fan housing. The gas enters from the side of the fan wheel, turns 90 degrees and accelerates due to centrifugal force as it flows over the fan blades and exits the fan housing.

is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward) that can be very strong. The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centrifugal causes denser substances and particles to move outward in the radial direction. At the same time, objects that are less dense are displaced and move to the center. In a laboratory centrifuge that uses sample tubes, the radial acceleration causes denser particles to settle to the bottom of the tube, while low-density substances rise to the top. There are three types of centrifuge designed for different applications. Industrial scale centrifuges are commonly used in manufacturing and waste processing to sediment suspended solids, or to separate immiscible liquids. An example is the cream separator found in dairies. Very high speed centrifuges and ultracentrifuges able to provide very high accelerations can separate fine particles down to the nano-scale, and molecules of different masses. Large centrifuges are used to simulate high gravity or acceleration environments (for example, high-G training for test pilots). Medium-sized centrifuges are used in washing machines and at some swimming pools to wring water out of fabrics. Gas centrifuges are used for isotope separation, such as to enrich nuclear fuel for fissile isotopes.

are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from which it exits. Common uses include water, sewage, agriculture, petroleum and petrochemical pumping. Centrifugal pumps are often chosen for their high flow rate capabilities, abrasive solution compatibility, mixing potential, as well as their relatively simple engineering. A centrifugal fan is commonly used to implement a vacuum cleaner. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy. Centrifugal Force is an inertial force.

Energy would have a similar menu like the one above for water. Find Energy Providers.....Energy Needs....Make Energy...and so on.

Education - Informed - Skilled

Every person needs a high quality education and every person needs to be informed. Every person needs the necessary tools and technologies that are needed to communicate. Every person needs to be able to transmit and receive information. Everyone needs to have access to the best and most important information and knowledge that is up to date and at our current level of understanding. Every person needs to have the knowledge and information that is needed to live a safe life, a sustainable life and a productive life.

Every child is a student of the world. So every child should have access to the best tools that are needed for learning. In order to truly help people, you have to give people the tools, the knowledge and the supplies that would allow them to continually educate themselves and manage themselves. When you teach someone about learning and teaching, they become life long learners and they become people who are willing to help others in need and teach others who are in need of knowledge.

Paying People to Learn is much more than just an incentive to learn and become more knowledgeable, it is an investment in our future. If people were given the necessary knowledge and information that they can use to improve their lives, then the power of knowledge will pay for itself, and the many rewards that comes from having knowledge will last a lifetime.

Healthcare comes from Education. You can't have doctors without education. You can't build hospitals without education. And people can't live healthy lives without education. And we can't have universal healthcare if politicians are ignorant and corrupt. Citizens must be educated enough to make sure that competent politicians are voted into office. This is why improving education is so extremely important.

Each person should learn everything there is to know about Education. How knowledge and information is acquired. How knowledge and information is shared. How knowledge and information is used to solve problems. How knowledge and information is used to acquire more knowledge and information. What knowledge and information is most important?

In order for education and knowledge to be available to everyone, one of the public utilities would have to include communications and a public phone system owned and operated by the public, and not by a corrupt corporation like AT&T.

In order to have a healthcare system, a justice system and an uncorrupted government, you need an Education System that provides educated citizens who can fill these necessary jobs that society needs. People Need to be Informed.

Educational Management refers to the administration of the education system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategize, and implement structures to execute an education system. Education is the equipping of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, habits, and attitudes with learning experiences. The education system is an ecosystem of professionals in educational institutions, such as government ministries, unions, statutory boards, agencies, and schools. The education system consists of political heads, principals, teaching staff, non-teaching staff, administrative personnel and other educational professionals working together to enrich and enhance. At all levels of the educational ecosystem, management is required; management involves the planning, organizing, implementation, review, evaluation, and integration of an institution.

Education, Knowledge and Information will have a similar menu like the one above for water. Find Knowledge and Information......Make Knowledge..... Knowledge Needs....